Occurrence of typhoid among the local population of district Dir Lower: A laboratory based study
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Department of Microbiology, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Department of Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Centre for Human Genetics, Hazara University Mansehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Fazal Rahim Clinical Laboratory, Opposite DHQ Hospital Timergara, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Department of Microbiology, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Tauseef Ahmad   

Department of Microbiology, Hazara University Mansehra 21300, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Tel.: +92 346 9403966.
Online publish date: 2019-08-31
Submission date: 2017-07-17
Acceptance date: 2017-10-12
Typhoid fever, a bacterial disease caused by Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) remains a major health problem in the Asian sub-continent due to poor hygienic conditions.

Our aim was to determine the prevalence of typhoid fever among the general population of district Lower Dir, Pakistan in order to describe the disease occurrence and distribution.

Material and methods:
This was a descriptive-epidemiological study. 1076 subjects were enrolled; with presentation of common symptoms of typhoid at the Fazal-Rahim Clinical Laboratory as inclusion criteria. Typhidot test was performed for all participants. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. PHStat software was used for statistical analyses.

Results and discussion:
The study comprised of 414 males and 662 females; 37.26% of total cases were found positive. Females (62.64%) were more affected compared to males (37.4%). Furthermore, the IgM antibodies were detected in 353 (88.02%) patients while IgG antibodies were present in only 48 (19.98%). Age group 20–40 years recorded the highest incidence of cases 242 (60.34%); also March recorded the highest incidence of cases 67 (50.38%). Overall, typhoid is a common disease in the local population of Lower Dir, it is dominant in females with the highest burden recorded in the economically-productive age group 20–40 years.

Further studies are recommended to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern; there is need to launch effective programmes for the eradication of the disease and promote safe drinking water and food through public enlightenment and education.

The authors are very thankful to the staff of Fazal Rahim Clinical Laboratory for their co-operation in this study.
None declared.
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