Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression and to insufficient income
More details
Hide details
Department of Perinatology, Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Poland
Submission date: 2020-10-18
Final revision date: 2021-01-10
Acceptance date: 2021-01-10
Online publication date: 2021-07-30
Corresponding author
Grażyna Gebuza   

Łukasiewicza 1, 85-067 Bydgoszcz, Poland. Tel.: +4852 585 33 00.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2022;29(1):6-13
No studies on paternal postnatal depression (PPND) have been performed in Poland.

The aim of the study was to estimate the symptoms of depression in women and men and identify the determinants of mental health of fathers after the birth of their child.

Material and methods:
Parents (142) participated in the study during the period 1 to 12 months after the birth.

Results and discussion:
The analyses reveal that 13% of fathers and 18% of mothers after the birth of their child had Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) scores of 10 or higher, which indicates possible depression. At score 12 and more, the proportion detected by EPDS decreased to 7% of fathers and 13% of mothers, which is an indicator of major depressive disorder. At EPDS score 12 and more, a probable depressive disorder was indicated in 10% of fathers in the period of 1–3 months, 7% of fathers at 4–7 months and 4% of fathers at 8–12 months. The symptoms of maternal depression at a score of 12 and more were detected in 16% of women at 1–3 months, 12% at 4–7 months 11% at 8–12 months. PPND was significantly associated with depression in mothers OR 5.7, lower education OR 4.3, low financial income OR 6.0, decreased relationship satisfaction OR 3.3, and previous history of depression OR 3.2.

Psychosocial factors were strong predictors of PPND up to a year after the birth of the child. The authors suggest the routine screening and assessment of both parents should occur during the woman’s pregnancy and in the postnatal period.

None declared.
None declared.
Garfield CF, Isacco A, Bartlo WD. Men’s health and fatherhood in the urban Midwestern United States. Int J Mens Health. 2010;9(3):161–174.
Markey CN, Markey PM, Schneider C, Brownlee S. Marital status and health beliefs: Different relations for men and women. Sex Roles. 2005;53:443–451.
Kim P, Swain JE. Sad dads: Paternal postpartum depression. Psychiatry. 2007;4(2):36–47.
Gemayel DJ, Wiener KK, Saliba AJ. Development of a conceptual framework that identifies factors and challenges impacting perinatal fathers. Heliyon. 2018;4(7):e00694.
Musser AK, Ahmed AH, Foli KJ, Coddington JA. Paternal postpartum depression: What health care providers should know. J Pediatr Health Care. 2013;27(6):479–485.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Washington, DC: APA. 2013.
O’Hara MW, McCabe JE. Postpartum depression: Current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013;9:379–407.
Fisher J, Mello MCD, Patel V, et al. Prevalence and determinants of common perinatal mental disorders in women in low-and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90(2):139–149H.
Goodman JH. Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health. J Adv Nurs. 2004;45(1):26–35.
Ramchandani P, Stein A, Evans J, O’Connor TG; ALSPAC study team. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study. Lancet. 2005;365(9478):2201–2205.
Shapiro AF, Gottman JM, Carrère S. The baby and the marriage: Identifying factors that buffer against decline in marital satisfaction after the first baby arrives. J Fam Psychol. 2000;14(1):59–70.
Saxbe DE, Schetter CD, Simon CD, Adam EK, Shalowitz MU. High paternal testosterone may protect against postpartum depressive symptoms in fathers, but confer risk to mothers and children. Horm Behav. 2017;95:103–112.
Storey AE, Walsh CJ, Quinton RL, Wynne-Edwards KE. Hormonal correlates of paternal responsiveness in new and expectant fathers. Evol Hum Behav. 2000;21(2):79–95.
Zhang YP, Zhang LL, Wei HH, Zhang Y, Zhang CL, Porr C. Postpartum depression and the psychosocial predictors in first-time fathers from northwestern China. Midwifery. 2016;35:47–52.
Glasser S, Lerner-Geva L. Focus on fathers: Paternal depression in the perinatal period. Perspect Public Health. 2019;139(4):195–198.
Fletcher RJ, Feeman E, Garfield C, Vimpani G. The effects of early paternal depression on children’s development. Med J Aus. 2011;195(11):685–689.
Cummings ME, Keller PS, Davies PT. Towards a family process model of maternal and paternal depressive symptoms: Exploring multiple relations with child and family functioning. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46(5):479–489.
Kerstis B, Aarts C, Tillman C, et al. Association between parental depressive symptoms and impaired bonding with the infant. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2016;19(1):87–94.
Nath S, Psychogiou L, Kuyken W, Ford T, Ryan E, Russell G. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among fathers and associated risk factors during the first seven years of their child’s life: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:509.
Philpott LF, Corcoran P. Paternal postnatal depression in Ireland: Prevalence and associated factors. Midwifery. 2018;56:121–12.
Wang SY, Chen CH. Psychosocial health of Taiwanese postnatal husbands and wives. J Psychosom Res. 2006;60(3):303–307.
Gao LL, Chan SW, Mao Q. Depression, perceived stress, and social support among first-time Chinese mothers and fathers in the postpartum period. Res Nurs Health. 2009;32(1):50–58.
Lancaster CA, Gold KJ, Flynn HA, Yoo H, Marcus SM, Davis MM. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;202(1):5–14.
Ip P, Li TMH, Chan L, et al. Associations of paternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant development in a Chinese longitudinal study. Infant Behav Dev. 2018;53:81–89.
Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry. 1987;150(6):782–786.
Carlberg M, Edhborg M, Lindberg L. Paternal perinatal depression assessed by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Gotland male depression scale: Prevalence and possible risk factors. Am J Mens Health. 2018;12 (4):720–729.
Edmondson OJ, Psychogiou L, Vlachos H, Netsi E, Ramchandani PG. Depression in fathers in the postnatal period: assessment of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a screening measure. J Affect Disord. 2010;125 (1–3):365–368.
Petersen I, Peltola T, Kaski S, Walters KR, Hardoon S. Depression, depressive symptoms and treatments in women who have recently given birth: UK cohort study. BMJ Open. 2018;8(10):e022152.
Kaźmierczak M, Gebuza G, Banaszkiewicz M, Mieczkowska E, Gierszewska, M. Mood disorders after childbirth. Pol Ann Med. 2017;24(2):111–116.
Nishigori H, Obara, T, Nishigori T, et al.; Regional Center of Japan Environment & Children’s Study Group. The prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depression symptoms of fathers at one and 6 months postpartum: an adjunct study of the Japan Environment & Children’s Study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020;33(16):2797–2804.
Gray PB, Reece JA, Coore-Desai C, et al. Patterns and predictors of depressive symptoms among Jamaican fathers of newborns. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2018;53(10):1063–1070.
O’Hara MW. Postpartum depression: what we know. J Clin Psychol. 2009;65:1258–1269.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), 4th Ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2000.
Nishimura A, Fujita Y, Katsuta M, Ishihara A, Ohashi K. Paternal postnatal depression in Japan: an investigation of correlated factors including relationship with a partner. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015;15:128.
Escribà-Agüir V, Artazcoz L. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(4):320–326.
Wee KY, Skouteris H, Pier C, Richardson B, Milgrom J. Correlates of ante- and postnatal depression in fathers: a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2011;130(3):358–377.
Pace CC, Spittle AJ, Molesworth CM, et al. Evolution of depression and anxiety symptoms in parents of very preterm infants during the newborn period. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(9):863–70.
Matthey S, Barnett B, Ungerer J, Waters B. Paternal and maternal depressed mood during the transition to parenthood. J Affect Disord. 2000;60(2):75–85.
Prino LE, Rollè L, Sechi C, et al. Parental relationship with twins from pregnancy to 3 months: The relation among parenting stress, infant temperament, and well-being. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1628.
Ramchandani P, Stein A, O’Connor TG, Heron J, Murray L, Evans J. Depression in men in the postnatal period and later child psychopathology: A population cohort study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47(4):390–398.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top