The effects of bovine milk fat on human health
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Department of Cattle Breeding and Milk Quality Evaluation, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Vilnius University Hospital, Santariskiu Klinikos, Lithuania
Submission date: 2012-05-30
Acceptance date: 2012-07-17
Publication date: 2020-04-10
Corresponding author
Jan Miciński   

Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 5/150, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland. Tel.: +48 523 38 64; fax: +4889 523 44 13.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2012;19(2):170-175
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in the nutritional value and health benefits of food products of animal origin. Numerous research studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of bovine milk, a key dietary component, on human health. Fat is one of the most important components in bovine milk, and its content ranges from 2.8% to 8.1%, subject to the breed of cattle, nutritional aspects, individual characteristics, lactation period, milk production hygiene and season.

The aim of this study was to review the latest literature concerning the health effects of components found in bovine milk fat.

Material and methods:
This paper is a literature review, and it analyzes the composition of bovine milk fat and its effects on human health. The available sources were grouped thematically, and an attempt was made to characterize various milk fat components and their effects on human health.

The unique nutritional value of bovine milk can be attributed to the presence of short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids which are important sources of energy for the muscles, heart, liver, kidneys, blood platelets and nervous system. They do not pose an obesity risk; they prevent ulcerative colitis, cancer, atherosclerosis and hypertension; they have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects, and they boost natural immunity. Milk contains cholesterol, a lipid derivative which stabilizes and stiffens cell membranes, builds the cell cytoskeleton, protects nerve fibers and acts as a precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids and vitamin D 3 . Bovine milk lipids do not exert hypercholesterolemic or atherogenic effects in the human body.

A growing tendency to replace animal fats, mainly milk fat, with vegetable fats is a matter of concern.

None declared.
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