RESEARCH PAPER
Trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality, clinical diagnosis and treatment in the light of the contemporary demographic changes in Germany and Poland, 2006–2016
 
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1
Medical Student, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany
2
Institute of Geography, Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
3
Institute of Geographical Sciences, Freie University Berlin, Germany
4
Institute of Spatial Management and Geography, Faculty of Geoengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marie Thöle   

Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin. Tel.: +493315818833.
Submission date: 2020-05-26
Final revision date: 2020-10-02
Acceptance date: 2020-10-02
Online publication date: 2020-10-30
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2020;27(2):159–167
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Trends in cancer incidence and mortality are determined by contemporary demographic processes. Breast cancer in women is a particular threat. In Germany, the chances of survival after the diagnosis of cancer are among the highest in Europe. The understanding of the latest trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality in Germany and the presentation of the latest screening options, treatment and prevention methods can be used to improve the control of breast cancer in the future.

Aim:
The aim of the research was to present trends in cancer incidence and mortality, with particular emphasis on breast cancer in women in Germany and Poland on the background of contemporary demographic changes relating to the process of population ageing in 2006–2016. The clinical diagnostic process, the treatment of breast cancer and potential risk factors and prevention methods were described.

Material and methods:
In the publication the basic statistical indicators have been applied: absolute numbers, percentages, crude rates, age-standardized rates, and demographic aging index.

Results and discussion:
The cancer mortality in Poland was much higher than in Germany, which is associated with the low five-year survival rate of cancer patients in Poland. The breast cancer was characterized by the highest dynamics in incidence growth with a persistent mortality level.

Conclusions:
Over the last two decades, breast cancer outcomes of patients have improved significantly due to highly individualized breast cancer therapies and the development of breast cancer treatment options such as immunotherapy, hormone receptor-based therapy and HER2 status-based therapy. The main risk factors are age, hormonal situation and inherited risk genes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research was supported by medical students and researchers from German and Polish universities. We thank the Robert Koch Institute, the Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Charité Medical Library for the opportunity to use medical literature and scientific databases.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
None.
FUNDING
None declared.
 
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