A new look at the polycystic ovary syndrome
 
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Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Magdalena Maria Stefanowicz-Rutkowska   

Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Kościuszki 61/22, 10-587 Olsztyn, Poland
Online publish date: 2018-09-24
Publish date: 2019-10-31
Submission date: 2018-06-12
Final revision date: 2018-08-06
Acceptance date: 2018-09-17
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2019;26(1):60–65
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age. Currently, the occurrence of PCOS is estimated at 6%–25% depending on the recognition criteria used.

Aim:
The aim of the study is to discuss the clinical picture and PCOS diagnosis criteria, which are a constant subject of debate among scientists and clinicians.

Material and methods:
The paper was based on the available literature of the subject, magazines and the latest guidelines.

Results and discussion:
The crucial criterion for the diagnosis of PCOS is hyperandrogenization, as well as ovulation and infertility disorders. The most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenisation in PCOS is hirsutism, and more rarely, acne and androgenetic alopecia. Patients with PCOS also have metabolic disorders such as overweight, obesity, hyperinsulinism, insulin resistance, increased risk of: glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, additionally symptoms of depression and anxiety, eating disorders and reduced quality of life. The Rotterdam criteria from 2003 are the most widely accepted (two of the three criteria have to be met): hyperandrogenism (clinical and/or biochemical); oligoovulation or lack of ovulation; presence of polycystic ovaries in ultrasound examination.

Conclusions:
Patients have hormonal and metabolic disorders what causes problems with the standardized definition of PCOS. Various phenotypes are found in PCOS. The exact pathogenesis of PCOS has not yet been clarified. Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of PCOS should be the primary task of endocrinologists, gynecologists and psychologists.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank the anonymous referees for their useful suggestions.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
The authors have no potential conflicts of interest.
FUNDING
The work was not financed by any scientific research institution, association or other entity, the authors did not receive any grant.
 
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