Characteristics of cow's milk proteins including allergenic properties and methods for its reduction
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Department of Cattle Breeding and Milk Evaluation, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Pathophysiology, Forensic Veterinary Medicine and Administration, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Environmental Management and Agriculture, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
Submission date: 2013-02-04
Acceptance date: 2013-07-08
Online publication date: 2013-07-09
Publication date: 2020-04-07
Corresponding author
Jan Miciński   

Department of Cattle Breeding and Milk Evaluation, Faculty of Animal Bioengineering, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 5, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland. Tel.: +48 895 233 864; fax: +48 895 234 413.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2013;20(1):69-76
Composition and hygienic quality of milk determine its nutritional value and processing suitability. However, biological quality of milk depends on the content of bioactive components, which due to its health promoting properties have a positive effect on human health. Biologically active substances present in cow's milk include proteins, peptides, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, enzymes, sterols, phospholipids and fatty acids. Among these components, several proteins (lactoferrin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin and casein) that inhibit cancer cell growth, deserve special attention. However, cow's milk contains also approximately 30 potentially allergenic proteins. The most common bovine milk allergens are casein fractions and β-lactoglobulin naturally not present in human breast milk.

The aim of this study was to analyze the available literature on the characteristics of cow's milk proteins as allergens that may cause food allergies and identify methods of reducing their immunogenicity.

Material and methods:
On the basis of the available literature characteristics of cow's milk proteins and their effect on the occurrence of food allergy in human are presented. A review of the available methods of modification of animal proteins that may reduce its allergenicity was also conducted.

It is possible to reduce cow's milk allergenicity in the production of dairy products by thermal, enzymatic and biotechnological techniques. The majority of subjects that demonstrate intolerance of bovine milk may safely consume fermented dairy products.

Prevalence of food allergy is so high that it may be considered a disease of civilization. Therefore, attention should be paid to food technological processes that may eliminate or reduce allergenicity of cow's milk proteins.

None declared.
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