Clinical implications of the forgotten Skene's glands: A review of current literature
Gautam Dagur 1,   Kelly Warren 1,   Reese Imhof 1,   Jacquelyn Gonka 1,   Yiji Suh 1,   Sardar A. Khan 1, 2  
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Department of Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York, USA
Department of Urology, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York, USA
Sardar A. Khan   

HSC Level 9 Room 040, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8093, USA. Tel.: +1 631 987 0132/44 7620.
Submission date: 2015-11-15
Acceptance date: 2016-02-10
Online publication date: 2016-05-04
Publication date: 2020-03-24
Pol. Ann. Med. 2016;23(2):182–190
The clinical and pathological aspects of the Skene's glands have not been addressed in the current scientific literature.

To review the current literature to focus on the clinical and pathological aspects of the Skene's glands. The historical perspective including embryology, anatomy, histology, and current role of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) as a tumor marker of lesions which develop from the Skene's glands, 'female prostate.'

Material and methods:
Medline searches were performed to review the current literature regarding Skene's glands pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, role of PSA, and its treatment options.

Results and discussion:
Anatomical pathology including inflammatory, cystic, solid, benign, and malignant tumors of Skene's glands is emphasized. The unique role of PSA in these lesions is reviewed. Cognizance of periurethral, perimeatal and urethral masses is essential for anatomical pathologists, radiologists, urologists and gynecologists who encounter complex female urethral masses in their clinical practice. Imaging techniques of Skene's glands to diagnose urethral, perimeatal and periurethral masses in female are reviewed.

The literature of the interesting scientific concepts related to the Skene's glands are reviewed. The role of PSA in these lesions is expanded for diagnoses and treatment options of pathology of the Skene's glands. Methods of imaging are necessary for radiologist, pathologists, and clinicians alike, for the proper treatment of Skene's gland lesions.

We gratefully acknowledge literature research assistance from Mrs. Wendy Isser, Ms. Grace Garey, and Ms. Amanda Dalpiaz.
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
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