Clinical implications of the forgotten Skene's glands: A review of current literature
More details
Hide details
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York, USA
Department of Urology, SUNY at Stony Brook, New York, USA
Submission date: 2015-11-15
Acceptance date: 2016-02-10
Online publication date: 2016-05-04
Publication date: 2020-03-24
Corresponding author
Sardar A. Khan   

HSC Level 9 Room 040, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8093, USA. Tel.: +1 631 987 0132/44 7620.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2016;23(2):182-190
The clinical and pathological aspects of the Skene's glands have not been addressed in the current scientific literature.

To review the current literature to focus on the clinical and pathological aspects of the Skene's glands. The historical perspective including embryology, anatomy, histology, and current role of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) as a tumor marker of lesions which develop from the Skene's glands, 'female prostate.'

Material and methods:
Medline searches were performed to review the current literature regarding Skene's glands pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, role of PSA, and its treatment options.

Results and discussion:
Anatomical pathology including inflammatory, cystic, solid, benign, and malignant tumors of Skene's glands is emphasized. The unique role of PSA in these lesions is reviewed. Cognizance of periurethral, perimeatal and urethral masses is essential for anatomical pathologists, radiologists, urologists and gynecologists who encounter complex female urethral masses in their clinical practice. Imaging techniques of Skene's glands to diagnose urethral, perimeatal and periurethral masses in female are reviewed.

The literature of the interesting scientific concepts related to the Skene's glands are reviewed. The role of PSA in these lesions is expanded for diagnoses and treatment options of pathology of the Skene's glands. Methods of imaging are necessary for radiologist, pathologists, and clinicians alike, for the proper treatment of Skene's gland lesions.

We gratefully acknowledge literature research assistance from Mrs. Wendy Isser, Ms. Grace Garey, and Ms. Amanda Dalpiaz.
The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.
Skene AJC, Alex S, Tulsky MD. History of Medicine Collection. The Anatomy and Pathology of Two Important Glands of the Female Urethra. New York: William Wood & Co.; 1880.
de Graaf R. De Mulerium Organis Generationi Inser-ventibus Tracatus Novus, Demonstrans Tam Hominesset Aminalis Caetera Omina, Quac Vivipara Dicuntur, Haud Minue Quam Ovipara ab Ovo Origimem Ducere. The Netherlands: Leyden;1672:66.
Tourneaux M. Comprend de la Soc de biol. vol. 40. 1888;81.
Johnson FP. The homologue of the prostate in the female. J Urol. 1922;8:13–33.
Huffman JW. The detailed anatomy of the para-urethral ducts in the adult human female. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1948;55(1):86–101.
Huffman JW. The development of the periurethral glands in the human female. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1943;46:773–785.
Zaviacic M, Jakubovská V, Belosovic M, Breza J. Ultrastructure of the normal adult human female prostate gland (Skene's gland). Anat Embryol. 2000;201(1):51–61.
Zaviacic M, Danihel L, Ruzicková M, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of human protein 1 in the female prostate (Skene's gland) and the male prostate. Histochem J. 1997;29(3):219–227.
Tepper SL, Jagirdar J, Heath D, Geller SA. Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. Immunohistochemical demonstration. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1984;108(5):423–425.
Zaviacic M, Ablin RJ. The female prostate and prostatespecific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications of this prostate marker in women and reasons for using the term ‘‘prostate’’ in the human female. Histol Histopathol. 2000;15(1):131–142.
Sloboda J, Zaviacic M, Jakubovský J, Hammar E, Johnsen J. Metastasizing adenocarcinoma of the female prostate (Skene's paraurethral glands). Histological and immunohistochemical prostate markers studies and first ultrastructural observation. Pathol Res Pract. 1998;194(2):129–136.
Zaviacic M, Sidlo J, Borovský M. Prostate specific antigen and prostate specific acid phosphatase in adenocarcinom of Skene's paraurethral glands and ducts. Virchows Arch A: Pathol Anat Histopathol. 1993;423(6):503–505.
Korytko TP, Lowe GJ, Jimenez RE, Pohar KS, Martin DD. Prostate-specific antigen response after definitive radiotherapy for Skene's gland adenocarcinoma resembling prostate adenocarcinoma. Urol Oncol. 2012;30(5):602–606.
Dodson MK, Cliby WA, Pettavel PP, Keeney GL, Podratz KC. Female urethral adenocarcinoma: evidence for more than one tissue of origin? Gynecol Oncol. 1995;59(3):352–357.
Kelly P, McBride HA, Kennedy K, Connolly LE, McCluggage WG. Misplaced Skene's glands: glandular elements in the lower female genital tract that are variably immunoreactive with prostate markers and that encompass vaginal tubulosquamous polyp and cervical ectopic prostatic tissue. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011;30(6):605–612.
Baydar DE, Himmetoglu C. Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix. Part 1. Diagnosis: ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix. Pathology. 2008;40(4):407–408.
Güth U, Singer G. [Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix]. Pathologe. 2007;28(4):291–293 [in German].
Nucci MR, Ferry JA, Young RH. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix: a report of four cases and review of ectopic prostatic tissue. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(9):1224–1230.
Singh M. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix. Report of a case and brief overview of basaloid cervical glandular lesions. J Clin Pathol. 2012;65(6):573–575.
Wallace C, Creager AJ, Cappellari JO, Bergman S. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(9):1215–1216.
McCluggage WG, Ganesan R, Hirschowitz L, Miller K, Rollason TP. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the uterine cervix and vagina: report of a series with a detailed immunohistochemical analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(2):209–215.
Stewart CJ. Tubulo-squamous vaginal polyp with basaloid epithelial differentiation. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009;28(6):563–566.
McCluggage WG. Recent developments in vulvovaginal pathology. Histopathology. 2009;54(2):156–173.
Hansen T, Macchiella D, Kirkpatrick CJ. [Tubulosquamous vaginal polyp. Case report with respect to histogenesis]. Pathologe. 2012;33(2):157–160 [in German].
Lorange E, Harmanli O, Cao QJ, Jones KA. Vaginal myofibroblastoma with prostatic glands: is there an association with tamoxifen use? A case report. J Reprod Med. 2013;58(7):344–346.
Uzoaru I, Akang EE, Aghadiuno PU, Nadimpalli VR. Benign cystic ovarian teratomas with prostatic tissue: a report of two cases. Teratology. 1992;45(3):235–239.
Busto Martin L, Barguti I, Andraca AZ, Gómez IR, Castañón LB. Cyst of the Skene's gland: report of four cases and bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol. 2010;63(3):238–242 [in English, Spanish].
Battaglia C, Venturoli S. 3-D ultrasonographic appearance of two intermittent paraurethral cysts: a case report. J Sex Med. 2010;7(8):2903–2906.
García N&a, Hernando Cubero J, Alonso Orduña V, Torrecilla Idoipe N, Calvo Escribano C, Fernandez Atuán R. Adenosquamous cell carcinoma of the rectum in a girl: first case reported and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015;37(6):e364–e367.
Fukata S, Inoue K, Sawada K, Yasuda M, Shuin T. [Female paraurethral cyst: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2001;47(3):207–210 [in Japanese].
Deppisch LM. Cysts of the vagina: classification and clinical correlations. Obstet Gynecol. 1975;45(6):632–637.
Satyanarayan. Nangal J, Kapoor A, Sharma N. Vaginal amelanotic nodular malignant melanoma in a middle-aged female: a rare case report and review of literature. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2015;65(3):199–201.
Yoshii T, Horiguchi A, Shirotake S, et al. [Case of primary amelanotic malignant melanoma of the female urethra]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;101(6):734–737 [in Japanese].
Chong KM, Chuang J, Tsai YL, Hwang JL. A rapidly growing paraurethral myoma with profuse bleeding from a mucosal vessel: report of a case. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006;61(2):87–89.
Moriya F, Sakashita N, Saitoh K, Shimizu S, Matsuoka K, Ueda S. [Paraurethral leiomyoma in women]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2004;50(9):661–663 [in Japanese].
Di Cello V, Saltutti C, Mincione GP, Rovereto B, Natali A, Durval A. Paraurethral leiomyoma in women. Eur Urol. 1988;15(3–4):290–293.
Pehlivanov B, Belovegdov V, Ivanov G, Ivancheva H. Primary localised amyloidosis of the vagina. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;48(1):120–122.
Babalola EO, Famuyide AO, McGuire LJ, Gebhart JB, Klingele CJ. Vaginal erosion, sinus formation, and ischiorectal abscess following transobturator tape: ObTape implantation. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006;17(4):418–421.
Butler JM, Bennetsen D, Dias A. An unusual cause of pelvic pain and fever: periurethral abscess from an infected urethral diverticulum. J Emerg Med. 2011;40(3):287–290.
Cook CL, Sanfilippo JS, Verdi GD, Pietsch JB. Capillary hemangioma of the vagina and urethra in a child: response to short-term steroid therapy. Obstet Gynecol. 1989;73(5 Pt 2):883–885.
Davis GD, Patton WS. Capillary hemangioma of the cervix and vagina: management with carbon dioxide laser. Obstet Gynecol. 1983;62(3 suppl):95s–96s.
Shaririaghdas F, Daneshpajooh A, Mirzaei M. Paraurethral cyst in adult women: experience with 85 cases. Urol J. 2014;11(5):1896–1899.
Moralioğlu S, Bosnali O, Celayir AC, Sahin C. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn. Urol Ann. 2013;5(3):204–205.
Durakbasa CU, Okur H. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn. Indian Pediatr. 2010;47(2):182.
Kalorin CM, Belarmino J, Mian B, De E. Complete eversion of the urinary bladder: presentation, review, and algorithm for management. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(2 Pt 2):496–501.
Kim JH, Cho DY, Bae JH, Park HS. Complete bladder eversion concurrent with total uterine prolapse. Int Urogynecol J. 2010;21(4):503–505.
Landi L, Elia A, Adorisio O. Prolapsed vaginal ureterocele as a cause of urinary incontinence in a child. Urol J. 2015;12(1):1999–2000.
Goh JT, Gregora MG, Heap G. An unusual cause of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain – prolapsed ureterocele. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;34(4):494–495.
Mosel A. [Endometrial carcino-sarcoma in a young woman with Turner syndrome (author's transl)]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1979;39(3):217–221 [in German].
Wollgarten B. [Clinical case. Retention cyst of Bartholin's glands]. Tierarztl Prax. 1996;24(1):10. 29–30 [in German].
Kishimoto T, Mabuchi S, Kato H, Kimura T. Condyloma acuminata induces focal intense FDG uptake mimicking vaginal stump recurrence from uterine cervical cancer: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2013;34(1):99–100.
Horn LC, Klostermann K, Hautmann S, Höhn AK, Beckmann MW, Mehlhorn G. [HPV-associated alterations of the vulva and vagina. Morphology and molecular pathology]. Pathologe. 2011;32(6):467–475 [in German].
Spampinato V. [Three cases of reticulosarcoma of the vagina]. Arch Ital Anat Istol Patol. 1953;26(1):46–54 [in Undetermined Language].
Ciulla U. [Reticulosarcoma of the vagina]. Ann Ostet Ginecol. 1952;74(5):414–428 [in Undetermined Language].
Marini C. [Reticulosarcoma of the vagina in an infant]. Acta Paediatr Lat. 1950;3(5):403–409 [in Undetermined Language].
Demir M, Çiftçi H, Kiliçarslan N, et al. A case of an ectopic ureter with vaginal insertion diagnosed in adulthood. Turk J Urol. 2015;41(1):53–55.
Ohzeki T, Adomi S, Esa A, Park YC. [A patient with an ectopic ureteral opening diagnosed on the basis of pus discharge from the perineal region]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2012;58(8):453–456 [in Japanese].
Liu AX, Zhou JH, Jin HM, Zhu CK, Cheng XD. Primary rhabdomyosarcoma of urethra in a 5-year-old girl: case report and literature review. Urology. 2007;69(6). 1208.e17–9.
Lopez JI, Angulo JC. Vaginal metaplasia of the bladder associated with ectopic ureterocele. A clinicopathologic study of two cases. Arch Anat Cytol Pathol. 1992;40(4):217–219.
Schol PB, De Waard J, Van Praag MC, Noordhoek Hegt V, Van Der Weiden RM. Vaginal sarcoidosis. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2013;33(4):426.
Allen SL, Judson MA. Vaginal involvement in a patient with sarcoidosis. Chest. 2010;137(2):455–456.
Dadhwal V, Deka D, Mathur S, Kaushal S, Sharma AK, Mittal S. Vaginal polypoid endometriosis simulating neoplasia in a young woman. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2012;16(3):318–321.
Klenov VE, Potretzke TA, Sehn JK, Thaker PH. Postmenopausal invasive endometriosis requiring supralevator pelvic exenteration. Obstet Gynecol. 2015;126(6):1215–1218.
Kushelev AE. [Sarcoma of the urethra in a woman]. Urol Nefrol (Mosk). (3):1975;(3):65–66.
Akbarzadeh A, Khorramirouz R, Saadat S, Hiradfar M, Kajbafzadeh AM. Congenital urethral polyps in girls: as a differential diagnosis of interlabial masses. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2014;27(6):330–334.
Mullins DL, Wilkinson EJ. Pathology of the vulva and vagina. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1994;6(4):351–358.
Wilkinson EJ. Pathology of the vagina. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 1991;3(4):553–560.
Gellman AC, Dershewitz D. Skene's gland calculi produced by a Ureaplasma urealyticum infection. J Urol. 1986;135(4):786–788.
Blanco Rabassa E, Cowley Chavez O. [Primary fibrosarcoma of the vagina; report of a case]. Rev Cubana Pediatr. 1953;25(9):547–556 [in Undetermined Language].
Forzini T, Viart L, Alezra E, Saint F. [Erosive complications of mid urethral slings (MUS): 10 years of surgical experience]. Prog Urol. 2015;25(5):240–248 [in French].
Rosenfeld DL, Lis E. Gartner's duct cyst with a single vaginal ectopic ureter and associated renal dysplasia or agenesis. J Ultrasound Med. 1993;12(12):775–778.
Emmons SL, Petty WM. Recurrent giant Gartner's duct cysts. A report of two cases. J Reprod Med. 2001;46(8):773–775.
Kasai T, Moriyama K, Tsuji M, Uema K, Sakurai N. [A case of vaginal implantation of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;92(4):538–541 [in Japanese].
Silver SA, Tavassoli FA. Glomus tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the ovary: report of a case simulating a metastasis from cervical squamous carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124(9):1373–1375.
Banner EA, Winkelmann RK. Glomus tumor of the vagina: report of a case. Obstet Gynecol. 1957;9(3):326–328.
Chaturvedi A, Padel A. Tubulo-squamous polyp of the vagina with sebaceous glands: novel features in an uncommon recently described entity. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010;29(5):494–496.
Petrová M, Laco J, Červíček K, Tomšová M. [Tubulo- squamous polyp of the vagina]. Ceska Gynekol. 2015;80(3):173–175 [in Czech].
Satyanarayan A, Redd L, Dyer A, Wright A, Walker J. Adenocarcinoma of the urethra with mucinous features. Rev Urol. 2015;17(1):38–41.
Mimura Y, Mizusawa H, Saito T, Hirabayashi N. [A case of alpha-fetoprotein-producing female urethral adenocarcinoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo. 2013;59(6):373–376.
Mosković S, Bulajić M, Jovanović M, Tomić R, Vucić V. [Hematoma of the vagina – a case report]. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 1978;106(1):63–66 [in Czech].
Frioux SM, Blinman T, Christian CW. Vaginal lacerations from consensual intercourse in adolescents. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35(1):69–73.
Chiba M, Toki A, Sugiyama A, et al. Urethral caruncle in a 9-year-old girl: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep. 2015;9:71.
Hoge RH. The diagnosis and treatment of certain infections of the vulva and vagina: granuloma inguinale; lymphopathia venereum; monilia vulvo-vaginitis; condylomata acuminata. South Med Surg. 1950;112(12):389–391.
Woo I, Birsner ML, Chen CC. Periurethral cystic mass misdiagnosed: a case report. J Reprod Med. 2014;59(7–8):414–416.
Jordanov A, Strateva D, Hinkova N. [Vaginal leiomyoma – a case report and review of the literature]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2014;53(8):33–35 [in Bulgarian].
Jordanov A, Hinkova N, Ivanov I, Popovska S. [Leiomyosarcoma of the vagina: a case report and review from the literature]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2015;54(1):34–38 [in Bulgarian].
Dong Z, Wang H, Zuo L, Hou M. Female urethral diverticulum containing a giant calculus: a CAREcompliant case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(20):e826.
Jadhav J, Koukoura O, Joarder R, Edmonds S. Urethral diverticulum mimicking anterior vaginal wall prolapse: case report. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010;17(3):390–392.
Vögeli T, Engstfeld EJ. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the female urethra. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 1992;26(2):111–112.
Suzuki T, Furuse H, Kurita Y, et al. [Long-term survival of metastatic clear cell adenocarcinoma of the female urethra by multidisciplinary treatment: a case report]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi. 2013;104(3):549–553.
Berger MB, Morgan DM. Delayed presentation of pseudoabscess secondary to injection of pyrolytic carbon-coated beads bulking agent. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg. 2012;18(5):303–305.
Lai HH, Hurtado EA, Appell RA. Large urethral prolapse formation after calcium hydroxylapatite (Coaptite) injection. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19(9):1315–1317.
Horsburgh B, Singh G. Iatrogenic urethral prolapse following vaginal hysterectomy and anterior repair. BMJ Case Rep. 2014;2014:.
Nevin DT, Palazzo J, Petersen R. A urethral mass in a 67-year-old woman. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson tumor). Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2006;130(4):561–562.
Molina Escudero R, Navas Martinez MC, Castillo OA. Vaginal Gartner cysts: clinical report of four cases and a bibliographic review. Arch Esp Urol. 2014;67(2):181–184 [in English, Spanish].
Jayaprakash S, Lakshmidevi M, Kumar SG. A rare case of posterior vaginal wall cyst. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011:.
Vilela RC, Benchimol M. Interaction of Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus with keratin: an important role in parasite infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106(6):701–704.
Kashyap B, Samantray JC, Kumar S, Jhamb R, Singh AK, Kaur IR. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis. J Helminthol. 2014;88(3):381–383.
Surabhi VR, Menias CO, George V, Siegel CL, Prasad SR. Magnetic resonance imaging of female urethral and periurethral disorders. Radiol Clin North Am. 2013;51(6):941–953.
Conces MR, Williamson SR, Montironi R, Lopez-Beltran A, Scarpelli M, Cheng L. Urethral caruncle: clinicopathologic features of 41 cases. Hum Pathol. 2012;43(9):1400–1404.
Parente Hernández A, Angulo Madero JM, del Cañizo López A, Sánchez París O, Romero Ruiz RM, Vázquez Estévez J. [The paraurethral cyst or Skene's duct cyst in the female newborn]. Actas Urol Esp. 2006;30(1):93–94 [in Spanish].
Bennett GL, Hecht EM, Tanpitukpongse TP, et al. MRI of the urethra in women with lower urinary tract symptoms: spectrum of findings at static and dynamic imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009;193(6):1708–1715.
Kimbrough Jr HM, Vaughan Jr ED. Skene's duct cyst in a newborn: case report and review of the literature. J Urol. 1977;117(3):387–388.
Ali SZ, Smilari TF, Gal D, Lovecchio JL, Teichberg S. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of Skene's glands. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;57(2):257–261.
Lee MY, Dalpiaz A, Schwamb R, Miao Y, Waltzer W, Khan A. Clinical pathology of Bartholin's glands: a review of the literature. Curr Urol. 2015;8(1):22–25.
Dragojević S, Stanojević D, Mihailović V, Curković A, Jurišić A, Cirović A. Bilateral Bartholin's gland hematic cysts after cesarean delivery: an uncommon entity. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286(1):257–259.
Bhide A, Nama V, Patel S, Kalu E. Microbiology of cysts/abscesses of Bartholin's gland: review of empirical antibiotic therapy against microbial culture. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2010;30(7):701–703.
Brook I. Microbiology and management of polymicrobial female genital tract infections in adolescents. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2002;15(4):217–226.
Fitzhugh VA, Houck K, Heller DS. Vaginal blue nevus: report of a case and review of the literature. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2011;15(4):325–327.
Dasan JC, Rao K, Nalini V. Leiomyoma of the female urethra – a clinical curiosity. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1989;28(4):381–383.
Johnson CT, Millard SE, Wang MH, Ehsanipoor RM. Prenatal diagnosis of a paraurethral cyst. J Pediatr Urol. 2013;9(1):e91–e93.
Allouis M, Marcade E, Babut JM. [Skène's duct cysts report of three cases in neonate (author's transl)]. J Urol (Paris). 1980;86(4):275–277 [in French].
Romero Peréz P, Amat Cecilia M, Sevilla Chica FI, Arañó Gisbert F. [Paraurethral cyst of the Skene's gland]. Actas Urol Esp. 1993;17(3):207–209 [in Spanish].
Omole F, Simmons BJ, Hacker Y. Management of Bartholin's duct cyst and gland abscess. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(1):135–140.
Durel P. [Broad exposure for skenitis and bartholinitis]. Gynecol Prat. 1951;2:389–392. English transl, 393–85 [in Undetermined Language].
Izquierdo C, Rodríguez P, Sabanés ME, Navarro F, Sánchez F. [Gardnerella vaginalis skenitis]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 1996;14(3):199–200 [in Spanish].
Miller EV. Skene's duct cyst. J Urol. 1984;131(5):966–967.
Aspera AM, Rackley RR, Vasavada SP. Contemporary evaluation and management of the female urethral diverticulum. Urol Clin North Am. 2002;29(3):617–624.
Miranda EP, Almeida DC, Ribeiro GP, Parente JM, Scafuri AG. Surgical treatment for recurrent refractory skenitis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008;8:658–660.
Lucioni A, Rapp DE, Gong EM, Fedunok P, Bales GT. Diagnosis and management of periurethral cysts. Urol Int. 2007;78(2):121–125.
Isen K, Utku V, Atilgan I, Kutun Y. Experience with the diagnosis and management of paraurethral cysts in adult women. Can J Urol. 2008;15(4):4169–4173.
Blaivas JG, Flisser AJ, Bleustein CB, Panagopoulos G. Periurethral masses: etiology and diagnosis in a large series of women. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(5 Pt 1):842–847.
Dias P, Hillard P, Rauh J. Skene's gland abscess with suburethral diverticulum in an adolescent. J Adolesc Health Care. 1987;8(4):372–375.
Shah SR, Biggs GY, Rosenblum N, Nitti VW. Surgical management of Skene's gland abscess/infection: a contemporary series. Int Urogynecol J. 2012;23(2):159–164.
Kelly HA. Operative Gynecology. vol. 1. New York: D. Appleton and Company; 1902.
Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, Garber G. Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11(2):300–317.
Grigsby PW. Carcinoma of the urethra in women. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998;41(3):535–541.
Kuroda N, Shiotsu T, Ohara M, Hirouchi T, Mizuno K, Miyazaki E. Female urethral adenocarcinoma with a heterogeneous phenotype. APMIS. 2006;114(4):314–318.
Chan YM, Ka-Leung Cheng D, Nga-Yin Cheung A, Yuen-Sheung Ngan H, Wong LC. Female urethral adenocarcinoma arising from urethritis glandularis. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;79(3):511–514.
Murphy DP, Pantuck AJ, Amenta PS, et al. Female urethral adenocarcinoma: immunohistochemical evidence of more than 1 tissue of origin. J Urol. 1999;161(6):1881–1884.
Dodson MK, Cliby WA, Keeney GL, Peterson MF, Podratz KC. Skene's gland adenocarcinoma with increased serum level of prostate-specific antigen. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;55(2):304–307.
Reis LO, Billis A, Ferreira FT, Ikari LY, Stellini RF, Ferreira U. Female urethral carcinoma: evidences to origin from Skene's glands. Urol Oncol. 2011;29(2):218–223.
Chen LP, Lin SJ, Fu TY, Yu MS. Locally advanced female urethral adenocarcinoma of enteric origin: the role of adjuvant chemoradiation and brief review. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011;27(4):150–154.
Ueda Y, Mandai M, Matsumura N, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of Skene glands: a rare origin in the female genital tract and the characteristic clinical course. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2012;31(6):596–600.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top