RESEARCH PAPER
Clinical profile and laboratory finding of diabetic foot ulcers from tertiary hospitals in Bali
I Nyoman Semadi 1  
,   Kelvin Setiawan 2  
,   Hendry Irawan 2  
 
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1
Thorax and Cardiovascular Surgery Division, General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
2
General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Hendry Irawan   

General Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine Udayana University, Sanglah General Hospital, Jl. Diponegoro, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 80113. Tel.: +62 361 227912
Submission date: 2019-11-15
Final revision date: 2020-04-24
Acceptance date: 2020-04-24
Online publication date: 2020-08-06
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), as one of the chronic non-healing wounds, causes a significant financial burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Chronic wounds usually exhibit powerful pro-inflammatory stimuli, as seen in laboratory results.

Aim:
For this reason, we conducted an observational study to obtain the clinical profile, hematological profile, and biochemical profile from our DFU patient laboratory examinations.

Material and methods:
This study was a retrospective descriptive study conducted between March 2016 and December 2018 in Sanglah Hospital, Bali which included a total of 113 patients. The variables included in this study consisted of DFU clinical status, treatment procedures, and laboratory results. We further divided the laboratory results into two groups, haematological and blood chemistry profile. All numerical data were summarized as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical variables were summarized as frequency and percentage.

Results and discussion:
The mean patient’s age was 55.68 ± 10.52 years old. The most of patients were male (54.9%). Leukocytosis was observed in these patients (13.80 ± 6.48 × 109/L) and neutrophil dominated the white blood differential count. There were 35 patients (30.97%) with creatinine levels above 1.3 mg/dL, 73 patients (64.6%) with random blood glucose above 180 mg/dL, and 78 patients (67.3%) with HbA1c levels higher than 53 mmol/mol, even 33 patients (29.2%) with HbA1c more than 86 mmol/mol.

Conclusions:
Some laboratory values have a significant meaning in diabetic foot patients, which can become instruments for the physician in diagnosing, select the most effective treatment, and predict outcome or complications in DFU patients.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
All the authors have no conflicts of interest.
FUNDING
None.
 
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