Effect of the menstrual cycle on the muscle strength in young women
More details
Hide details
Department of Kinesitherapy and Special Methods, SHS in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland
Submission date: 2019-06-14
Final revision date: 2019-08-23
Acceptance date: 2019-08-24
Online publication date: 2019-11-24
Corresponding author
Tomasz Michalski   

Department of Kinesitherapy and Special Methods, SHS in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków 12, 40-752 Katowice, Poland. Tel.: +4832 20 88 712.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2020;27(1):39–44
Nowadays more women are trying to shape their figure properly. Changes in the menstrual cycle can affect the dynamic muscle parameters of women.

The aim of the study was to assess muscle strength in various phases of the menstrual cycle in young women

Material and methods:
The study involved 23 women aged 20–22. All the women had menstrual periods (27 ± 3.16 days). The strength measurement was made by means of Microfet2 (Hoggan Health Industries, USA), which was fixed permanently to the floor. The test was performed on the knee flexors at the angle of 10° and 90° and hip flexors in the neutral position and the glenohumeral joint (shoulder) extensors at the flexion of 90°. The lever arm was marked with the use of anthropometric points. The test was performed three times in each phase of the menstrual cycle; in the early follicular phase (2nd–5th day), the ovular (12th–15th day) and in the luteal phase (16th–28th day).

Results and discussion:
No statistically significant differences in the muscle torque values during the menstrual cycle were confirmed in the test. The P value of the arm extensors is 0.33, for hip flexors is 0.79 and hamstring muscle with a bent knee joint in 90° and 10° is 0.311, 0.567, respectively. No statistically significant differences between the particular cycles phases were confirmed either.

In the menstrual cycle in young women, there are no significant differences in muscle strength during the individual phases.

None declared.
None declared.
Bisdee JT, James WPT, Shaw MA. Changes in energy expenditure during the menstrual cycle. Br J Nutr. 1989;61(2):187–199.
Shultz SJ, Wideman L, Montgomery MM, Beasley KN, Nindl BC. Changes in serum collagen markers, IGF-I, and Knee joint laxity across the menstrual cycle. J Orthop Res. 2012;30(9):1405–1412.
Park SK, Stefanyshyn DJ, Ramage B, Hart DA, Ronsky JL. Alterations in knee joint laxity during the menstrual cycle in healthy women leads to increases in joint loads during selected athletic movements. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(6):1169–1177.
Eiling E, Bryant AL, Petersen W, Murphy A, Hohmann E. Effects of menstrual-cycle hormone fluctuations on musculotendinous stiffness and knee joint laxity. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15(2):126–132.
Dedrick GS, Sizer PS, Merkle JN, et al. Effect of sex hormones on neuromuscular control patterns during landing. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2008;18(1):68–78.
Pallavi LC, Souza UJD, Shivaprakash G. Assessment of musculoskeletal strength and levels of fatigue during different phases of menstrual cycle in young adults. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017;11(2):CC11–CC13.
Janse De Jonge XAK, Boot CRL, Thom JM, Ruell PA, Thompson MW. The influence of menstrual cycle phase on skeletal muscle contractile characteristics in humans. J Physiol. 2001;530(Pt 1):161–166.
Gür H. Concentric and eccentric isokinetic measurements in knee muscles during the menstrual cycle: A special reference to reciprocal moment ratios. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78(5):501–505.
Sarwar R, Niclos BB, Rutherford OM. Changes in muscle strength, relaxation rate and fatiguability during the human menstrual cycle. J Physiol. 1996;493(Pt 1):267–272.
Gordon D, Hughes F, Young K, et al. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on the development of peak torque under isokinetic conditions. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2013;21(4):285–291.
Herzberg SD, Motu’apuaka ML, Lambert W, Fu R, Brady J, Guise JM. The effect of menstrual cycle and contraceptives on ACL injuries and laxity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Orthop J Sports Med. 2017;5(7):1–10.
Belanger L, Burt D, Callaghan J, Clifton S, Gleberzon BJ. Anterior cruciate ligament laxity related to the menstrual cycle: an updated systematic review of the literature. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2013;57(1):76–86.
Juhi A, Vj A, Deepali A, Harika P. Estimation of muscle strength in women during the different phases of menstrual cycle. 2014;2(5):973–979.
Lowe DA, Baltgalvis KA, Greising SM. Mechanisms behind estrogen’s beneficial effect on muscle strength in females. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38(2):61–67.
Sung E, Han A, Hinrichs T, Vorgerd M, Manchado C, Platen P. Effects of follicular versus luteal phase-based strength training in young women. Springerplus. 2014;3(1):1–10.
Tiidus PM. Influence of estrogen on skeletal muscle damage, inflammation, and repair. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(1):40–44.
Wikström-Frisén L, Boraxbekk CJ, Henriksson-Larsén K. Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017;57(1–2):43–52.
Casey E, Hameed F, Dhaher Y. Muscle stretch reflex throughout the menstrual cycle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(3):600–609.
Kubo K, Miyamoto M, Tanaka S, Maki A, Tsunoda N, Kanehisa H. Muscle and tendon properties during menstrual cycle. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30(2):139–143.
Moran AL, Nelson SA, Landisch RM, Warren GL, Lowe DA. Estradiol replacement reverses ovariectomy-induced muscle contractile and myosin dysfunction in mature female mice. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(4):1387–1393.
Nakamura Y, Aizawa K, Imai T, Kono I, Mesaki N. Hormonal responses to resistance exercise during different menstrual cycle states. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(6):967–973.
Montgomery MM, Shultz SJ. Isometric knee-extension and knee-flexion torque production during early follicular and postovulatory phases in recreationally active women. J Athl Train. 2010;45(6):586–593.
Blazevich AJ, Gill ND, Zhou S. Intra- and intermuscular variation in human quadriceps femoris architecture assessed in vivo. J Anat. 2006;209(3):289–310.
Bell DR, Myrick MP, Blackburn JT, Shultz SJ, Guskiewicz KM, Padua DA. The effect of menstrual-cycle phase on hamstring extensibility and muscle stiffness. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(4):553–563.
Smith YR. Pronociceptive and antinociceptive effects of estradiol through endogenous opioid neurotransmission in women. J Neurosci. 2006;26(21):5777–5785.
26 Worrell TW, Karst G, Adamczyk D, et al. Influence of joint position on electromyographic and torque generation during maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the hamstrings and gluteus maximus muscles. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2001;31(12):730–740.
Skelton DA, Phillips SK, Bruce SA, Naylor CH, Woledge RC. Hormone replacement therapy increases isometric muscle strength of adductor pollicis in post-menopausal women. Clin Sci (Lond). 1999;96(4):357–364.
Greeves JP, Cable NT, Reilly T, Kingsland C. Changes in muscle strength in women following the menopause: a longitudinal assessment of the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy. Clin Sci (Lond). 1999;97(1):79–84.
Brown M, Birge SJ, Kohrt WM. Hormone replacement therapy does not augment gains in muscle strength or fat-free mass in response to weight-bearing exercise. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(3):B166–B170.
Elliott KJ, Cable NT, Reilly T. Does oral contraceptive use affect maximum force production in women? Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(1):15–19.
Lee CW, Newman MA, Riechman SE. Oral contraceptive use impairs muscle gains in young women. FASEB J. 2009;23(1 Suppl):955.25.