Gum arabic down-regulate PPAR-g and SCD mRNA expression in mice
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum, Sudan
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Nyala, Sudan
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
Faculty of Education, University of Nyala, Sudan
Submission date: 2014-07-25
Acceptance date: 2015-03-17
Online publication date: 2015-04-28
Publication date: 2020-03-24
Corresponding author
Hassan H. Musa   

P.O. Box 11081, Khartoum 11115, Sudan. Tel.: +249 906547116.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2015;22(1):11-17
Gum arabic is a complex polysaccharide used in the food industry as a thickener and stabilizer. It reduced plasma cholesterol level in animals and humans, and it has prebiotic, anticarcinogenic and anti-oxidant effect with a protective role against hepatic and cardiac toxicities.

To study the impact of gum arabic on body weight, adipose tissue weight, lipid profiles and expression of some gene control lipid metabolism.

Material and methods:
20 female CD-1 mice at 5 weeks age were divided into two groups, one served as control and the second received 10% of gum arabic in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver and visceral adipose tissue and serum were collected from all groups. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-c and LDL-c were assayed using kits, and the expression of lipid metabolic enzyme gene was detected by RT-PCR.

Results and discussion:
The results showed that gum arabic significantly decreased body weight (P < 0.05) and visceral adipose tissue weight (P < 0.01). Gum arabic non-significantly (P < 0.05) reduces blood glucose and total cholesterol, and increased HDL-c. The expression of lipid metabolic enzyme gene showed that gum arabic significantly (P < 0.05) down-regulated PPAR-γ and SCD expression. However, gum arabic has no significant (P < 0.05) effect on HMGR, G6P, CYP17, Sreb, TNF-α, FAS, MGL, ATGL, HSL and ACC gene expression.

The results conclude that gum arabic can reduce body weight and visceral adipose tissue weight, and down-regulated PPAR-γ and SCD gene expression.

The authors are highly grateful to Prof. Shi Fangxiong and Prof. Ruqian Zhao at the Nanjing Agricultural University, China for their support in conducting this research.
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Annison GF, Trimble RP, Topping DL. Feeding Australian Acacia gums and gum arabic leads to non-starch polysaccharide accumulation in the cecum of rats. J Nutr. 1995;125(2):283–292.
Nasir O, Artunc F, Saeed A, et al. Effects of gum arabic (Acacia senegal) on water and electrolyte balance in healthy mice. J Ren Nutr. 2008;18:230–238.
Verbeken D, Dierckx S, Dewettinck K. Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;63:10–21.
FAO/WHO: 1969 evaluations of some pesticide residues in food. FAO/PL: 1969/M/17/1; WHO/Food Add./70.38;1970: 145–177. On INCHEM.
Phillips AO, Phillips GO. Biofunctional behavior and health benefits of a specific Gum Arabic. Food Hydrocolloids. 2011;25:165–169.
Phillips GO, Ogasawara T, Ushida K. The regulatory and scientific approach to defining Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal) as a dietary fibre. Food Hydrocolloids. 2008;22:24–35.
Calame W, Weseler AR, Viebke C, Flynn C, Siemensma AD. Gum Arabic establishes prebiotic functionality in healthy human volunteers in a dose-dependent manner. Br J Nutr. 2008;100:1269–1275.
Sharma RD. Hypocholesterolemic effect of gum acacia in men. Nutr Res. 1985;5:1321–1326.
Nasir O, Wang K, Foller M, et al. Downregulation of angiogenin transcript levels and inhibition of colonic carcinoma by Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal). Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:802–810.
Al-Majed AA, Mostafa AM, Al-Rikabi AC, Al-Shabanah OA. Protective effects of oral arabic gum administration on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Pharmacol Res. 2002;46:445–451.
Ali BH, Al-Qarawi AA, Haroun EM, Mousa HM. The effect of treatment with Gum Arabic on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats: a preliminary study. Renal Fail. 2003;25:15–20.
Ali BH, Al-Salam S, Al-Husseni I, et al. Effects of Gum Arabic in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010;235:373–382.
Glover DA, Ushida K, Phillips AO, Riley SG. Acacia (sen) SUPERGUMTM (Gum Arabic): an evaluation of potential health benefits in human subjects. Food Hydrocolloids. 2009;23:2410–2415.
Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999–2002. JAMA. 2004;291:2847–2850.
Lear SA, Toma M, Birmingham L, Frohlich JJ. Modification of the relationship between simple anthropometric indices and risk factors by ethnic background. Metabolism. 2003;52:1295–1301.
Manson JE, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. A prospective study of obesity and risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1990;322:882–889.
Hirsch J, Han PW. Cellularity of rat adipose tissue: effects of growth, starvation, and obesity. J Lipid Res. 1969;10:77–82.
Smith S, Witkowski A, Joshi AK. Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Prog Lipid Res. 2003;42:289–317.
Young JW, Shrago E, Lardy HA. Metabolic control of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Biochemistry. 1964;3:1687–1692.
Grindflek E, Sundvold H, Lien S, Rothschild MF. Rapid communication: physical and genetic mapping of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor g (PPARg) gene to porcine chromosome 13. J Anim Sci. 2000;78:1391–1392.
Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2 (–Delta Delta C(T)) method. Methods. 2001;25:402–408.
Moundras C, Behr SR, Demigné C, Mazur A, Remesy C. Fermentablepolysaccharides that enhance fecal bileacid excretion lower plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein E-rich HDL in rats. J Nutr. 1994;124:2179–2188.
Tiss A, Carrière F, Verger R. Effects of gum arabic on lipase interfacial binding and activity. Anal Biochem. 2001;294:36–43.
Gallaher DD, Hassel CA, Lee KJ. Relationships between viscosity of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and plasma cholesterol in hamsters. J Nutr. 1993;123:732–738.
Superko HR, Haskell WL, Sawrey-Kubicek L, Farquhar JW. Effects of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol. 1988;62:51–55.
Evans AJ, Hood RL, Oakenfull DG, Sidhu GS. Relationship between structure and function of dietary fibre: a comparative study of the effects of three galactomannans on cholesterol metabolism in the rat. Br J Nutr. 1992;68:217–229.
Kelley JJ, Tsai A. Effect of pectin, gum arabic and agar on cholesterol absorption, synthesis, and turnover in rats. J Nutr. 1978;108:630–639.
Ross AH, Eastwood MA, Brydon WG, Anderson JR, Anderson DM. A study of the effects of dietary gum arabic in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1983;37:368–375.
Haskell WL, Spiller GA, Jensen CD, Ellis BK, Gates JE. Role of water soluble dietary fiber in the management of elevated plasma cholesterol in healthy subjects. Am J Cardiol. 1992;69:433–439.
Jensen CD, Spiller GA, Gates JE, Miller AF, Whittam JH. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans. J Am Coll Nutr. 1993;12:147–154.
Topping D, Illman RJ, Trimble RP. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in rats fed diets containing gum Arabic and cellulose separately and a mixture. Nutr Rep Int. 1985;32:809–814.
Eastwood MA. The physiological effect of dietary fiber: an update. Annu Rev Nutr. 1992;12:19–35.
Evans RM, Barish GD, Wang YX. PPARs and the complex journey to obesity. Nat Med. 2001;10:1–7.
Miyazaki M, Dobrzyn A, Elias PM, Ntambi JM. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 gene expression is required for lipid synthesis during early skin and liver development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12501–12506.
Nichols LA, Jackson DE, Manthey JA, Shivendra D, Shukla SD, Holland LJ. Citrus flavonoids repress the mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase, a key enzyme in lipid synthesis and obesity control, in rat primary hepatocytes. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:36.
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top