REVIEW PAPER
Novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease
Lukasz Dobrek 1  
,   Piotr Thor 1, 2
 
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1
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Lukasz Dobrek   

Department of Pathophysiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Czysta 18, Kraków, Poland. Tel.: +48 12 632 90 56; fax: +48 12 632 90 56.
Submission date: 2016-03-21
Acceptance date: 2016-10-18
Online publication date: 2016-11-11
Publication date: 2019-12-15
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2017;24(1):84–91
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Nowadays, laboratory evaluation of renal damage is based on conventional poorly-sensitive and poorly-specific markers, such as serum creatinine, urea and electrolyte levels. This stimulated continuous research on novel biochemical markers suitable for diagnosis and monitoring of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Aim:
The aim of this paper was to review available evidence regarding novel biomarkers of kidney damage.

Material and methods:
The review of available literature was conducted, using search terms 'kidney damage biomarker' and 'kidney injury biomarker.'

Results and discussion:
Cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, kidney injury molecule-1, liver-type fatty acid binding protein, selected urinary enzymes (e.g. N-acetyl-bglucosidase) and low-molecular-weight proteins (e.g. b-2 microglobulin) seem to be the most promising biomarkers of both AKI and CKD. In turn, asymmetric dimethylarginine, inflammatory/ fibrosis parameters (e.g. monocyte chemoattractant protein, transforming growth factor-b1) and Klotho-FGF23 axis raise most interest as the most selective markers of CKD.

Conclusions:
Owing continuing progress in nephrology laboratory diagnostics, novel biomarkers of kidney damage are likely to be introduced in routine clinical practice.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
None declared.
 
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