RESEARCH PAPER
Oral health status of 12-year old children in the Warmia and Mazury region
 
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Provincial Specialist Stomatological Outpatient Clinic in Olsztyn, Peridontology Clinic, Olsztyn, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marcela Koc-Gąska   

Provincial Specialist Stomatological Outpatient Clinic in Olsztyn, Peridontology Clinic, Z˙ ołnierska 18, 10-561 Olsztyn, Poland. Tel.: +48 880 195 626; fax: +48 895 333 463.
Submission date: 2012-04-30
Acceptance date: 2012-06-02
Publication date: 2020-04-10
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2012;19(2):113–116
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
The relationship between the general state of health and condition of the oral cavity has been in the scope of interest of physicians since the early history of medicine. This issue was mentioned as early as during the times of Hippocrates. Oral cavity has been termed a ‘‘mirror of the body system.’’ Not only is the organism’s overall health reflected in the oral cavity, but its status also affects the course of various diseases. Hence, oral cavity health status and care are considered to be specific branches of medicine. Currently, there exist organizations involved in the control of the oral cavity status and in assigning health objectives so that the Polish population may be characterized as having healthy oral cavities.

Aim:
The aim of this study was to assess indicators of dental caries among 12-year old children from the Province of Warmia and Mazury in 2010.

Material and methods:
In total, 160 children (12 years of age), who reside in the Province of Warmia and Mazury, were examined. According to the organizers’ guidelines, this monitoring was conducted in two districts: Ełk and Bartoszyce. The clinical examination took place in the school physicians’ and nurses’ offices, and in classrooms, employing artificial light, utilizing a mirror and probe, and assessment criteria devised by the World Health Organization (WHO). The presence of primary and secondary dental caries, missing teeth, the presence of permanent fillings and fissure sealants were evaluated. Medical needs concerning dental restorations, endodontic treatment and surgical treatment were determined. The following data were calculated: DMFT index (the number of decayed teeth – D, missing teeth because of tooth decay – M and filled teeth – F), number of children without dental caries (DMFT = 0), the intensity of dental caries (expressed as the mean number of DMF/S, where S is the number of examined subjects), treatment rate (TR), respective frequency of caries (caries prevalence, expressed as a percentage). These calculations were made taking into account the distribution of the place of residence (town, village) and sex (boys and girls). The obtained results were compared with those of 12-year old children examined in the Province of Warmia and Mazury in 2002 and 2005 and those achieved in other provinces on the basis of the available literature.

Results and discussion:
The obtained results were as follows: the number of children without dental caries amounted to 38; caries intensity (DMF/S) was 2.86, TR equaled 0.82, and caries prevalence was 76%. Medical treatment needs among the examined children were as follows: we performed 53 one-surface restorations as conservative treatment and 19 fillings involving two or more surfaces; 5 teeth were qualified for endodontic treatment, and also 5 needed extraction.

Conclusions:
(1) The average DMFT index for 12-year old children (DMF/S¼2.86) indicates that the intensity of dental caries is moderate, but has increased over the ensuing years. (2) TR of 0.82 for 12-year old children is comforting because it indicates a high efficacy of treatment in this age group.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
None declared.
 
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