Relationship between regular aerobic physical exercise and glucose and lipid oxidation in obese subjects – A preliminary report
More details
Hide details
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Poland
Department of Rehabilitation, Medical University of Białystok, Poland
Agnieszka Adamska   

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Białystok, Kilin´ skiego 1, 15-089 Białystok, Poland. Tel.: +48 85 746 86 07; fax: +48 85 744 76 11.
Submission date: 2012-02-16
Acceptance date: 2012-05-20
Publication date: 2020-04-10
Pol. Ann. Med. 2012;19(2):117–121
The worldwide epidemic of obesity is due to the imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. This is a major contributor to various diseases including type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, sleep apnea, and some kinds of cancer. In obese individuals disturbances in glucose and lipid oxidation are observed, which probably could be improved upon after exercise training. However, the influence of exercise performed by obese individuals on their glucose and lipid metabolism is not clearly understood.

This study examined whether the intervention of aerobic exercise influences the rates of lipid and glucose oxidation at rest and after an insulin-stimulated state in obese women.

Material and methods:
We examined five obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) females without diabetes, aged 31–62, who participated in a 12-week program of aerobic exercise (5 days/week, 30 min/day). Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) technique and whole-body lipid and glucose oxidation rates were measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) using the ventilated hood technique. EHC and IC were performed before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results and discussion:
During our investigation, the measurements of body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences, body fat (%), fat-free mass (kg), insulin sensitivity, rates of lipid and glucose oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism and increase in the respiratory exchange ratio were taken before and after the exercise intervention. However, the statistical evaluation did not show any significant differences between corresponding results taken before and after the training program. We observed that fat mass decreased and insulin sensitivity increased in three subjects; whereas, in two cases we did not observe any changes after the aerobic training program.

The results obtained indicated that a 12-week aerobic training program was not sufficient to improve insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism in each obese woman. Perhaps some individuals need training of a longer duration to improve their insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility.

None declared.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes – 2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(suppl 1):S11–S61.
Ben Ounis O, Elloumi M, Zouhal H, Makni E, Lac G, Tabka Z, et al. Effect of an individualized physical training program on resting cortisol and growth hormone levels and fat oxidation during exercise in obese children. Ann Endocrinol. 2011;72(1):34–41.
Crisp NA, Guelfi KJ, Braham R, Licari M. Substrate oxidation in overweight boys at rest, during exercise and acute post-exercise recovery. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(2, Pt 2):E615–E621.
DeFronzo R, Tobin J, Andres R. Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol. 1997;237(3):214–223.
Fernández-Real JM, Ricart W. Insulin resistance and chronic cardiovascular inflammatory syndrome. Endocr Rev. 2003;24(3):278–301.
Gaine PC, Viesselman CT, Pikosky MA, Martin WF, Armstrong LE, Pescatello LS, et al. Aerobic exercise training decreases leucine oxidation at rest in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2005;135(5):1088–1092.
Giżewski T, Kowalski IM, Zarzycki D, Radomska-Wilczewska A, Lewandowski R, Kotwicki T. Model of self-learning system in medical diagnostics. Pol Ann Med. 2008;15(1):34–42.
Goodpaster BH, Katsiaras A, Kelley DE. Enhanced fat oxidation through physical activity is associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity in obesity. Diabetes. 2002;52(9):2191–2197.
Goodpaster BH, Wolfe RR, Kelley DE. Effects of obesity on substrate utilization during exercise. Obes Res. 2002;10(7):575–584.
Kanaley JA, Cryer PE, Jensen MD. Fatty acid kinetic responses to exercise. Effects of obesity, body fat distribution, and energy-restricted diet. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(1):255–261.
Kelley DE, Goodpaster B, Wing RR, Simoneau JA. Skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in association with insulin resis- tance, obesity, and weight loss. Am J Physiol. 2000;277(6, Pt 1):E1130–E1141.
Kelley DE, Mandarino LJ. Fuel selection in human skeletal muscle in insulin resistance: a reexamination. Diabetes. 2000;49(5):677–683.
Kirwan JP, Solomon TP, Wojta DM, Staten MA, Holloszy JO. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297(1):E151–E156.
Lazzer S, Lafortuna C, Busti C, Galli R, Agosti F, Sartorio A. Effects of low- and high-intensity exercise training on body composition and substrate metabolism in obese adolescents. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34(1):45–52.
Pruchnic R, Katsiaras A, He J, Kelley D, Winters C, Goodpaster BH. Exercise training increases intramyocellular lipid and oxidative capacity in older adults. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(5):E857–E862.
Saris WH, Blair SN, van Baak MA, Eaton SB, Davies PS, Di Pietro L, et al. How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Obes Rev. 2003;4(2):101–114.
Scharhag-Rosenberger F, Meyer T, Walitzek S, Kindermann W. Effects of one year aerobic endurance training on resting metabolic rate and exercise fat oxidation in previously untrained men and women. Metabolic endurance training adaptations. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31(7):498–504.
Sharma AM, Padwal R. Obesity is a sign – over-eating is a symptom: an aetiological framework for the assessment and management of obesity. Obes Rev. 2010;11(5):362–370.
Sial S, Coggan AR, Hickner RC, Klein S. Training-induced alterations in fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in elderly subjects. Am J Physiol. 1998;274(5, Pt 1):E785–E790.
Solomon TP, Sistrun SN, Krishnan RK, Del Aguila LF, Marchetti CM, O’Carroll SM, et al. Exercise and diet enhance fat oxidation and reduce insulin resistance in older obese adults. J Appl Physiol. 2008;104(5):1313–1319.
Storlien L, Oakes N, Kelley DE. Metabolic flexibility. Proc Nutr Soc. 2004;63(2):363–368.
Strączkowski M, Kowalska I, Dzienis-Straczkowska S, Stępień A, Skibińska E, Szelachowska M, et al. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha system and insulin sensitivity during an exercise training program in obese women with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001;145(3):273–280.
Thyfault JP, Kraus RM, Hickner RC, Howell AW, Wolfe RR, Dohm GL. Impaired plasma fatty acid oxidation in extremely obese women. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287(6):E1076–E1081.
Zarins ZA, Johnson ML, Faghihnia N, Horning MA, Wallis GA, Fattor JA, et al. Training improves the response in glucose flux to exercise in postmenopausal women. J Appl Physiol. 2009;107(1):90–97.
Zarins ZA, Wallis GA, Faghihnia N, Johnson ML, Fattor JA, Horning MA, et al. Effects of endurance training on cardiorespiratory fitness and substrate partitioning in postmenopausal women. Metabolism. 2009;58(9):1338–1346.