Overview of research over the efficiency of therapies of stuttering
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Department of Pathology and Rehabilitation of Speech, Medical University of Lublin, Poland
Ewa Humeniuk   

Department of Pathology and Rehabilitation of Speech, Medical University of Lublin, Staszica 4/6, Room 212, 20-081 Lublin, Poland. Tel.: +48 81 448 67 92; fax: +4881 448 68 31.
Submission date: 2016-03-21
Acceptance date: 2016-11-14
Online publication date: 2016-12-07
Publication date: 2019-12-15
Pol. Ann. Med. 2017;24(1):99–103
A number of methods of therapy of stuttering have been developed, which can be grouped as direct, indirect and compound methods. Direct methods are aimed at the very speech act and lead to improving speech fluency. Indirect methods are supposed to influence the person and his/her organism. Compound methods are a combination of direct and indirect methods in the form of a therapeutic program.

The aim of the overview was to analyze 17 articles that presented studies over the efficiency of direct, indirect and compound therapies of stuttering, as published in PubMed database between 2008 and 2015.

As far as direct methods of stuttering are concerned, devices like SpeechEasy, DAF and FAF (i.e. the one which alter the patient's perception of his/her own speech), as well as a metronome turn out to be really efficient. Indirect methods which use biofeedback, tactile and visual transmission of feedback as well as hypnotherapy combined with diaphragm exercise are equally effective. Laser acupuncture and cognitive therapy seem to improve the positive results achieved by means of other methods. Among the compound methods, Lidcombe Program in its different variants proves to be highly efficient among children, whereas Camperdown Programworks well among teenagers and adults. One may have certain hopes with regard to an innovative program referred to as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

Studies on efficiency of therapies of stuttering are scattered, do not cover the whole structure of the disorder and are focused on the symptom i.e. on assessing the severity of speech disfluency. Considering the research done so far, one cannot conclude that some methods are better than others since neither of them were compared in an experimental way.

None declared.
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