LETTER
The role of angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 in the age- and sex related poor prognosis of COVID-19. A comment on recent findings on novel coronavirus infection by SARS-CoV-2
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Emergency Department, SS Cosma and Damiano Hospital, USL Toscana Centro, Pescia, Italy
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Gabriele Cioni   

Dipartimento di accettazione ed Emergenza, Ospedale SS Cosma e Damiano, via Cesare Battisti 2, 51017, Pescia, USL Toscana Centro, Italia.
Online publication date: 2020-03-28
Submission date: 2020-03-15
Final revision date: 2020-03-27
Acceptance date: 2020-03-27
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2020;27(1):85–87
KEYWORDS
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
None.
FUNDING
None declared.
 
REFERENCES (14)
1.
Li L, Huang T, Wang YQ, et al. 2019 novel coronavirus patients’ clinical characteristics, discharge rate and fatality rate of meta-analysis. J Med Virol. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25....
 
2.
Xu XW, Wu XX, Jiang XG, et al. Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. BMJ. 2020;368:m606. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m6....
 
3.
Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, et al. Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamain....
 
4.
Li F. Receptor recognition and cross-species infections of SARS coronavirus. Antiviral Res. 2013;100(1):246–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anti....
 
5.
Kannan S, Shaik P, Ali S, Sheeza A, Hemalatha K. COVID-19 (Novel Coronavirus 2019) – Recent Trends. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2020;24(4):2006–2011. https://doi.org/10.26355/eurre....
 
6.
Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, et al. 2000. A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxy-peptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1–9. Circ Res. 2000;87(5):E1–E9. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.RES....
 
7.
Atlas SA. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological role and pharmacologic inhibition. J Manag Care Pharm; 2007;13(8 Suppl B):9–20. https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.....
 
8.
Wrapp D, Wang N, Corbett KS, et al. Cryo-EM Structure of the 2019-nCoV Spike in the Prefusion Conformation. Science. 2020;367(6483):1260–1263. https://doi.org/10.1126/scienc....
 
9.
Hamming I, Timens W, Bulthuis MLC, Lely AT, Navis GJ, van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J Pathol. 2004;203(2):631–637. https://doi.org/10.1002/path.1....
 
10.
Xie X, Chen J, Wang X, Zhang F, Liu Y. Age- and gender-related difference of ACE2 expression in rat lung. Life Sci. 2006;78(19):2166–2171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.....
 
11.
Nagata N, Iwata N, Hasegawa H, et al. Participation of both Host and Virus Factors in Induction of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in F344 Rats Infected with SARS Coronavirus. J Virol. 2007;81(4):1848–1857. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01....
 
12.
Rice GI, Jones AL, Grant PJ, Carter AM, Turner AJ, Hooper NM. Circulating activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme, its homolog, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and neprilysin in a family study. Hypertension. 2006;48(5):914–920. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP....
 
13.
Rockx B, Baas T, Zornetzer GA, et al. Early Upregulation of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome-Associated Cytokines Promotes Lethal Disease in an Aged-Mouse Model of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. J Virol. 2009;83(14):7062–7074. https://dx.doi.org/10.1128%2FJ....
 
14.
Michel N, Allespach I, Venzke S, Fackfmicheller OT, Keppler OT. The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus establishes superinfection immunity by a dual strategy to downregulate cellsurface CCR5 and CD4. Current Biology. 2005;15(8):714–723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.....