What made us physically active? Part II
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Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Department of Population Medicine and Civilization Diseases Prevention, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Department of Allergy, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
World Economy Research Institute, Collegium of World Economy, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland
Department of Respiratory Diagnostic and Bronchoscopy, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland
Submission date: 2018-05-09
Final revision date: 2018-08-28
Acceptance date: 2018-09-01
Online publication date: 2018-09-27
Publication date: 2019-11-01
Corresponding author
Ryszard Rutkowski   

Department of Respiratory Diagnostic and Bronchoscopy, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Bialystok, Poland.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2019;26(1):77–81
Evolutionary medicine applies modern evolutionary theory to provide insight into human health and disease. It contributes significantly to our understanding of their origins, causes and mechanisms and feeds into the discussion about insufficient physical activity of modern humans and the epidemics of so called life style diseases.

We discuss the evolution of the human musculoskeletal system, its role in human survival and the genesis of modern Homo sapiens to illustrate the fact that current level of human physical activity does not match our bodies’ evolutionary past.

Material and methods:
The literature on this subject.

Results and discussion:
The evolution of the human skeleton and muscular system allowed for strenuous walking and long-distance running. Bipedalism and the ability to run rendered humans dependant on physical activity to preserve health. The current lack of activity leads to ill health and many of civilisation diseases.

Daily exercise appears to be the best medicine for the diseases of civilisation in the 21st century.

None declared.
None declared.
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