RESEARCH PAPER
Tobacco smoking among dentists in Poland
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Periodontology, Wrocław Medical University, Poland
2
Private Practice in Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of General Dentistry, Medical University of Lodz, Poland
4
Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Anna Lella   

Warmińsko-Mazurska Izba Lekarska w Olsztynie, Żołnierska 16c, 10-561 Olsztyn, Poland. Tel.: +4889 539 19 29.
Submission date: 2016-04-20
Acceptance date: 2016-08-25
Online publication date: 2017-02-22
Publication date: 2019-12-15
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2017;24(1):24–30
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Nicotine dependence is a reversible risk factor of numerous oral cavity diseases. Dentist should be non-smoking and have knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of nicotine addiction.

Aim:
The aim of this survey is the assessment of prevalence of nicotine dependence among Polish dentists, factors associated with this addiction and knowledge on minimal antinicotine intervention acquired during pre- and post-graduate training.

Material and methods:
From October 2013 to March 2014 during 5 dental conferences dental practitioners (881 persons) were given anonymous proprietary questionnaires on nicotine use. 544 questionnaires were qualified for analysis, response rate 61.7%.

Results and discussion:
Group of active nicotine users consisted of 72 persons (13.2% of respondents). The average duration of smoking was 20 years and number of cigarettes smoked daily was 15. Median level of nicotine dependence score 5 and predominance of scores in the range of 4-6 on Fagerström test indicate that most frequent was moderate dependence. As many as 44.4% of dentists in this group had no attempts to quit the addiction. Non-smokers prevailed among women, pedodontists and younger practitioners. Active nicotine users prevailed in dentists above 44 years of age, male, dental surgeons and maxillofacial surgeons. Up to 397 (73%) respondents declared they were never acquainted with the basis for minimal antinicotine intervention.

Conclusions:
The prevalence of nicotine addiction among Polish dentists is lower by 10% compared to the general population, although in relation to current foreign studies its the average level. Main factors associated with active nicotine use in this occupational group include male gender, increasing age and surgical dental specialties. It should be intended to reduce number of nicotine users among Polish dentists by 5%. For this purpose professional anti-nicotine knowledge should be disseminated more.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST
None declared.
 
REFERENCES (34)
1.
WHO. Tobacco. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsh... Accessed 02.06.16.
 
2.
McCartan BE, Shanley DB. Policies and practices of European dental schools in relation to smoking; a ten-year follow-up. Br Dent J. 2005;198(7):423–425.
 
3.
FDI. Serious risks to health/oral health. http://www.fdiworldental.org/o... Accessed 02.06.16.
 
4.
European Commission. Special Eurobarometr 385: Attitudes of Europeans towards tobacco. Report. 2012. ec.europa.eu/health/tobacco/do... Accessed 02.06.16.
 
5.
Czapiński J. Tobacco smoking. In: Czapiński J, Panek T, eds. Social Diagnosis 2015. The conditions and quality of life of Poles. Report. Warszawa: Rada Monitoringu Społecznego; 2015:273–276 [in Polish], http://www.diagnoza.com/pliki/....
 
6.
Kalupa W, Marcinkowski JT, Kara I, Zysnarska M, Adamek R, Maksymiuk T. Tobacco smoking and consumption of narcotics among students of Poznan universities – a comparative analysis. Probl Hig Epidemiol. 2013;94(4):883–888 [in Polish].
 
7.
Chomyszyn-Gajewska M, Cabata A, Virtanen J. Attitudes and health behaviors of dental students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Jagiellonian University Medical College against smoking. Przegl Epidemiol. 2012;66(1):127–132 [in Polish].
 
8.
Smith DR, Leggat PA. An international review of tobacco smoking among medical students. J Postgrad Med. 2007;53(1):55–62.
 
9.
Fagerström KO. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addict Behav. 1978;3(3–4):235–241.
 
10.
Lund M, Lund KE, Rise J. Preventing tobacco use in Norwegian dental practice. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32(5):385–394.
 
12.
Rodrigues GA, Galvão V, Viegas CA. Prevalence of smoking among dentists in the Federal District of Brasilia, Brazil. J Bras Pneumol. 2008;34(5):288–293.
 
13.
Underwood B, Hackshaw A, Fox K. Smoking, alcohol and drug use among vocational dental practitioners in 2000 and 2005. Br Dent J. 2007;203(12):701–705.
 
15.
Tong EK, Strouse R, Hall J, Kovac M, Schroeder SA. National survey of U.S. health professionals' smoking prevalence, cessation practices, and beliefs. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(7):724–733.
 
16.
Jamal A, Home DM, O'Connor E, et al. Current cigarette smoking among adults United States, 2005–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(44):1233–1240.
 
17.
Casals Peidró E, Otero Romero S, Cuenca Sala E. Prevalence of smoking among dentists in Catalonia – Spain (2006). Literature review of smoking cessation practices in the dental office. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13(10):E671–E677.
 
18.
Park YD, Patton LL, Kim JH, Kim HY. Smoking prevalence and attitude toward anti-smoking activities among Korean dentists. Int Dent J. 2010;60(6):383–388.
 
19.
Ojima M, Hanioka T, Tanaka H. Necessity and readiness for smoking cessation intervention in dental clinics in Japan. J Epidemiol. 2012;22(1):57–63.
 
20.
Antal M, Forster A, Zalai Z, Barabás K, Ramseier C, Nagy K. Attitudes of Hungarian dental professionals to tobacco use and cessation. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2012;20(1):45–49.
 
21.
Tombor I, Paksi B, Urban R, et al. [Epidemiology of smoking in the Hungarian population based on national representative data]. Orv Hetil. 2010;151(9):330–337 [in Hungarian].
 
22.
WHO. State of smoking epidemic threat in Poland. 2009. http://sanepid.olsztyn.pl/plik... Accessed 03.06.16.
 
23.
Czapiński J. Tobacco smoking. In: Czapiński J, Panek T, eds. Social Diagnosis 2011. The conditions and quality of life of Poles. Report. Warszawa: Rada Monitoringu Społecznego; 2011:234–237 [in Polish].
 
24.
Sarna L, Bialous SA, Nandy K, Antonio AL, Yang Q. Changes in smoking prevalences among health care professionals from 2003 to 2010–2011. JAMA. 2014;311(2):197–199.
 
25.
Smith DR, Leggat PA. A comparison of tobacco smoking among dentists in 15 countries. Int Dent J. 2006;56(5):283–288.
 
26.
Shaw H, Jurga-Krokowicz J, Deręgowska-Nosowicz P, Czarnecka B. Smoking addiction and patients motivation to quit it among attenders of the Saldent 2006 conference. Przegl Lek. 2006;63(1):1075–1077 [in Polish].
 
27.
Csikar J, Kang J, Wyborn C, Dyer TA, Marshman Z, Godson J. The Self-Reported Oral Health Status and Dental Attendance of Smokers and Non-Smokers in England. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(2):e0148700.
 
28.
Smith DR, Leggat PA. Tobacco smoking prevalence among a cross-section of dentists in Queensland, Autralia. Kurume Med J. 2005;52(4):147–151.
 
29.
Polish Chamber of Physicians. Central Register of Doctors. www.nil.org.pl/rejestry/centra... Accessed 03.06.16.
 
30.
Kaneita Y, Sakurai H, Tsuchiya T, Ohida T. Changes in smoking prevalence and attitudes to smoking among Japanese physicians between 2000 and 2004. Public Health. 2008;122(9):882–890.
 
31.
Gańczak M, Szych Z, Karakiewicz B. [Tobacco smoking among doctors and nurses from surgical wards]. Hygeia Public Health. 2012;47(1):2–76 [in Polish].
 
32.
Johnson NW, Lowe JC, Warnakulasuriya KA. Tobacco cessation activities of UK dentists in primary care: signs of improvement. Br Dent J. 2006;200(2):85–89.
 
33.
Omaña-Cepeda C, Jané-Salas E, Estrugo-Devesa A, Chimenos-Küstner E, López-López J. Effectiveness of dentist's intervention in smoking cessation: A review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2016;8(1):e78–e83.
 
34.
Kaneita Y, Uchida T, Ohida T. Epidemiological study of smoking among Japanese physicians. Prev Med. 2010;51(2):164–167.