RESEARCH PAPER
The effect of cigarette smoking on serum levels of regulatory cytokines and molecules involved in atherogenesis during systemic treatment of psoriasis – results of a preliminary study
 
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1
Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Ecology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia nad Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Dermatology, Military Institute of the Health Services in Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Natalia Zdanowska   

Department of Dermatology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Clinical Immunology, School of Medicine, Collegium Medicum, The University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Wojska Polskiego 30, 10-229 Olsztyn, Poland. Tel.: +48502232591.
Submission date: 2020-12-27
Final revision date: 2021-03-09
Acceptance date: 2021-03-10
Online publication date: 2021-08-20
 
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Among the diseases associated with psoriasis linked to smoking are primarily cardiovascular diseases (including atherosclerosis) and metabolic syndrome. In addition, cigarette smoking also affects the effectiveness of systemic treatment of psoriasis.

Aim:
Assessment of the effect of cigarette smoking on biomarkers of atherosclerosis in patients with psoriasis treated with methotrexate and adalimumab.

Material and methods:
The serum levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and anti-oxLDL antibodies, IL-10, IL-35, TGFß1, were assessed in 34 patients with psoriasis (15 smokers and 19 non-smokers), and 8 healthy, non-smoking volunteers.

Results and discussion:
Smoking patients had significantly higher body mass index, lower high density lipoprotein (HDL), higher risk of 10-year fatal cardiovascular disease, higher IL-10 levels and lower IL-35 levels at baseline compared to healthy, non-smoking volunteers. We observed decreases in IL-10, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and oxLDL levels during 12 weeks of methotrexate treatment and, a decrease in IL-35 during adalimumab treatment, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

Conclusions:
Our results indicate the need for a holistic approach to psoriasis treatment that includes lifestyle modifications like smoking cessation to slow the development of atherosclerosis and increase the possibility of improving skin lesions.

FUNDING
This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poland (grant No. 61.610. 001-300).
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
Zbigniew Swacha cooperates with Medac. Other authors declare no conflict of interests. Both funders and Medac had no influence on the research project, collection, analysis and interpretation of the results obtained, manuscript writing and the decision to publish the obtained conclusions.
 
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