Effect of smoking on cyanide, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in saliva of smokers and nonsmokers
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Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
Submission date: 2017-06-29
Acceptance date: 2017-11-03
Online publication date: 2018-06-27
Publication date: 2019-11-18
Corresponding author
Afra Khosravi   

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Science, Banganjab, Ilam, Iran. Tel.: +988432222404, Mobile: +989126223958.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2018;25(2):203-206
Tobacco use is widely spread throughout the world. Smoking has several adverse effects on human health ranging from minor health conditions to death.

This study aimed to investigate effect of smoking on level of saliva cyanide, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) among smokers compared to nonsmokers in the city of Ilam, Iran.

Material and methods:
This study was carried out among two equal groups of smokers as cases and nonsmokers as controls (N = 76) which were matched in terms of their age range. Dental roll and direct saliva method were used to collect samples. The saliva sample was stored at –18°C. The level of salivary cyanide was measured using the spectrophotometric method. IL-2 and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA.

Results and discussion:
We found level of cyanide in the saliva of smokers was higher than that in nonsmokers. In addition, level of cyanide in the smokers’ saliva increased (164.21 ± 18.54 µg/mL) significantly compared to nonsmokers (42.63 ± 24.01 µg/mL). A significant increase was found in the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, there was a significant decrease in the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 with increased intensity of smoking.

Heavy smoking was associated with an increased level of salivary cyanide and a decreased level of sera IFN-γ. Recognizing immunosuppression mechanisms produced by cigarette-smoking is a platform for identifying the best therapeutic and management approaches in smoke-induced diseases.

We would like to thank the Ilam University of Medical Science for supporting this study.
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