RESEARCH PAPER
Effect of smoking on cyanide, IL-2 and IFN-γ levels in saliva of smokers and nonsmokers
 
More details
Hide details
1
Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
2
Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
3
Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Afra Khosravi   

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Science, Banganjab, Ilam, Iran. Tel.: +988432222404, Mobile: +989126223958.
Submission date: 2017-06-29
Acceptance date: 2017-11-03
Online publication date: 2018-06-27
Publication date: 2019-11-18
 
Pol. Ann. Med. 2018;25(2):203–206
 
KEYWORDS
ABSTRACT
Introduction:
Tobacco use is widely spread throughout the world. Smoking has several adverse effects on human health ranging from minor health conditions to death.

Aim:
This study aimed to investigate effect of smoking on level of saliva cyanide, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) among smokers compared to nonsmokers in the city of Ilam, Iran.

Material and methods:
This study was carried out among two equal groups of smokers as cases and nonsmokers as controls (N = 76) which were matched in terms of their age range. Dental roll and direct saliva method were used to collect samples. The saliva sample was stored at –18°C. The level of salivary cyanide was measured using the spectrophotometric method. IL-2 and IFN-γ were measured by ELISA.

Results and discussion:
We found level of cyanide in the saliva of smokers was higher than that in nonsmokers. In addition, level of cyanide in the smokers’ saliva increased (164.21 ± 18.54 µg/mL) significantly compared to nonsmokers (42.63 ± 24.01 µg/mL). A significant increase was found in the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 among smokers compared to nonsmokers. However, there was a significant decrease in the level of IFN-γ and IL-2 with increased intensity of smoking.

Conclusions:
Heavy smoking was associated with an increased level of salivary cyanide and a decreased level of sera IFN-γ. Recognizing immunosuppression mechanisms produced by cigarette-smoking is a platform for identifying the best therapeutic and management approaches in smoke-induced diseases.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank the Ilam University of Medical Science for supporting this study.
 
REFERENCES (32)
1.
Bornmyr S, Svensson H. Thermography and laser‐Doppler flowmetry for monitoring changes in finger skin blood flow upon cigarette smoking. Clin Physiol. 1991;11(2):135–141. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475....
 
2.
Hoffmann D, Hoffmann I, El-Bayoumy K. The less harmful cigarette: a controversial issue. A tribute to Ernst L. Wynder. Chem Res Toxicol. 2001;14(7):767–790. https://doi.org/10.1021/tx0002....
 
3.
Koc-Gąska M. Diagnostic pitfalls of tobacco smoking: The effect of nicotine addiction on the oral cavity – Literature review. Pol Ann Med. 2013;20:56–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poam....
 
4.
Kalra R, Singh SP, Savage SM, Finch GL, Sopori ML. Effects of cigarette smoke on immune response: chronic exposure to cigarette smoke impairs antigen-mediated signaling in T cells and depletes IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores. J. Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000;293(1):166–171.
 
5.
Hovinen J, Lahti M, Vilpo J. Spectrophotometric determination of thiocyanate in human saliva. J Chem Educ. 1999;76(9):1281. https://doi.org/10.1021/ed076p....
 
6.
Tsuge K, Kataoka M, Seto Y. Cyanide and thiocyanate levels in blood and saliva of healthy adult volunteers. J Health Sci. 2000;46(5):343–350. https://doi.org/10.1248/jhs.46....
 
7.
Seto Y. Oxidative conversion of thiocyanate to cyanide by oxyhemoglobin during acid denaturation. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;321(1):245–254. https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1....
 
8.
Kalburgi CV, Naik KL, Kokatnur MV, Warad S. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in healthy and different forms of tobacco users having chronic periodontitis: A cross-sectional biochemical study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2014;5(2):182–186. https://doi.org/10.4103/0976-2....
 
9.
Hegde S, Chatterjee E, Rajesh K, Kumar MA. Estimation and correlation of salivary thiocyanate levels in periodontally healthy subjects, smokers, nonsmokers, and gutka-chewers with chronic periodontitis. Indian J Dent Res. 2016;27(1):12–14. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9....
 
10.
Aggarwal A, Keluskar V, Goyal R, Dahiya P. Salivary thiocyanate: a biochemical indicator of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2013;11(3):221–227.
 
11.
Sopori ML, Kozak W. Immunomodulatory effects of cigarette smoke. J Neuroimmunol. 1998;83(1–2):148–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0165-....
 
12.
Chang JC, Distler SG, Kaplan AM. Tobacco smoke suppresses T cells but not antigen-presenting cells in the lung-associated lymph nodes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990;102(3):514–523. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-0....
 
13.
Burrows B, Halonen M, Barbee R, Lebowitz M. The relationship of serum immunoglobulin E to cigarette smoking. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981;124(5):523–525.
 
14.
Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2011.
 
15.
Schoenborn JR, Wilson CB. Regulation of interferon‐γ during innate and adaptive immune responses. Adv Immunol. 2007;96:41–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-....
 
16.
Ouyang Y, Virasch N, Hao P, et al. Suppression of human IL-1beta, IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production by cigarette smoke extracts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000;106(2):280–287. https://doi.org/10.1067/mai.20....
 
17.
Soliman DM, Twigg HL 3rd. Cigarette smoking decreases bioactive interleukin-6 secretion by alveolar macrophages. Am J Physiol. 1992;263(4 Pt 1):L471–L478. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajplun....
 
18.
Yamaguchi E, Itoh A, Furuya K, Miyamoto H, Abe S, Kawakami Y. Release of tumor necrosis factor-α from human alveolar macrophages is decreased in smokers. Chest. 1993;103(2):479–483. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.....
 
19.
Klein I, Nagler RM, Toffler R, van Der Vliet A, Reznick AZ. Effect of cigarette smoke on oral peroxidase activity in human saliva: role of hydrogen cyanide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;35(1):1448–1452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.free....
 
20.
McCrea KA, Ensor JE, Nall K, Bleecker ER, Hasday JD. Altered cytokine regulation in the lungs of cigarette smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994;150(3):696–703. https://doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm....
 
21.
Yanbaeva DG, Dentener MA, Creutzberg EC, Wesseling G, Wouters EF. Systemic effects of smoking. Chest. 2007;131(5):1557–1566. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.....
 
22.
Lindblad SS, Mydel P, Jonsson M, Senior RM, Tarkowski A, Bokarewa M. Smoking and nicotine exposure delay development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11(3):R88. https://doi.org/10.1186/ar2728.
 
23.
Martı́n F, Santolaria F, Batista N, et al. Cytokine levels (IL-6 and IFN-γ), acute phase response and nutritional status as prognostic factors in lung cancer. Cytokine. 1999;11(1):80–86. https://doi.org/10.1006/cyto.1....
 
24.
Rosenberg SA, Mulé JJ, Spiess PJ, Reichert CM, Schwarz SL. Regression of established pulmonary metastases and subcutaneous tumor mediated by the systemic administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2. J Exp Med. 1985;161(5):1169–1188. https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.16....
 
25.
Weiss GR, Margolin KA, Aronson FR, et al. A randomized phase II trial of continuous infusion interleukin-2 or bolus injection interleukin-2 plus lymphokine-activated killer cells for advanced renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 1992;10(2):275–281. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19....
 
26.
Hallquist N, Hakki A, Wecker L, Friedman H, Pross S. Differential effects of nicotine and aging on splenocyte proliferation and the production of Th1-versus Th2-type cytokines. Exp Biol Med. 2000;224(3):141–146. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525....
 
27.
Nouri‐Shirazi M, Guinet E. Evidence for the immunosuppressive role of nicotine on human dendritic cell functions. Immunology. 2003;109(3):365–373. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365....
 
28.
Petro TM, Peterson DS, Fung YK. Nicotine enhances interleukin production of rat splenic T lymphocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992;14(3):463–475. https://doi.org/10.3109/089239....
 
29.
Zhang S, Petro TM. The effect of nicotine on murine CD4 T cell responses. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1996;18(8–9):467–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0192-....
 
30.
Cozen W, Diaz-Sanchez D, Gauderman W, et al. Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IgE levels in identical twins with varying levels of cigarette consumption. J Clin Immunol. 2004;24(6):617–622. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10875....
 
31.
Hagiwara E, Takahashi K-I, Okubo T, et al. Cigarette smoking depletes cells spontaneously secreting Th(1) cytokines in the human airway. Cytokine. 2001;14(2):121–126. https://doi.org/10.1006/cyto.2....
 
32.
Daloee MH, Avan A, Mirhafez SR, et al. Impact of cigarette smoking on serum pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Am J Mens Health. 2017;11(4):1169–1173. https://doi.org/10.1177/155798....