Intestinal colonization in Polish infants: From newborns till 18-month-old children
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Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Silesia, Bytom, Poland
Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, Medical University of Silesia, Bytom, Poland
Department of Biology, Medical University of Silesia, Zabrze, Poland
Submission date: 2016-01-22
Acceptance date: 2016-06-21
Online publication date: 2016-08-31
Publication date: 2019-12-19
Corresponding author
Krystyna Stencel-Gabriel   

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Silesia, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom, Poland. Tel.: +48 602 580 924.
Pol. Ann. Med. 2017;24(2):138-143
Human intestinal colonization is a dynamic process that is nowadays redefining due to hygienic changes in the Polish population.

To analyze the development of the intestinal flora from newborns till 18-month-old infants in Poland.

Material and methods:
171 newborns were enrolled. We collected fecal samples at 5 timepoints (1st stool, at 3, 6, 12, 18 months). At each visit, the questionnaire concerning breastfeeding, antibiotics, probiotics was obtained including atopy family history at the first visit.

The count of staphylococci, enterococci, lactobacilli decreased (mean 0 months vs. 18 months: 3.08 × 107 CFU/g vs. 6.35 × 106 CFU/g; 1.85 × 1010 CFU/g vs. 9.26 × 107 CFU/g; 3.3 × 1011 CFU/g vs. 3.11 × 107 CFU/g) and Clostridium difficile and Gram-negative bacilli increased (6.2 × 104 CFU/g vs. 1.34 × 105 CFU/g; 1.78 × 106 CFU/g vs. 9.03 × 107 CFU/g) during the first 18 months of life. Positive maternal atopy history influenced colonization with staphylococci in newborns, anaerobic bacteria, enterococci in 3-month-old infants and anaerobic bacteria in 6-month-old infants.

Our study shows that the gut colonization is a constant process. For the first time, we present the trends in bacterial establishment in a group of more than 170 Polish children. The positive role of breastfeeding in the establishment of gut flora was previously suggested. Unexpectedly, among mostly breastfed children no relation between breastfeeding and the infantile gut microflora was found.

The intestinal colonization is continuously changed over the first 18 months of life and is influenced by positive maternal atopy history.

None declared.
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